Special Emphasis


a. Airplane’s handling characteristics approaching a stall (AFH 4-3~4)

An unusual attitude of the airplane (Vision)
Changed sound (Hearing)
Sensing of changes in direction or speed of motion (Kinesthesia)
Feeling of control pressure
Buffeting, uncontrollable pitching, or vibrations may begin (Feel)"
The first buffeting or decay of control effectiveness is noted, the angle of attack must be reduced immediately by releasing the back-elevator pressure and applying whatever additional power is necessary.

b. how a stall progresses on the airplane’s wing and why that is beneficial (AFH 4-5~6)

Most airplanes are designed so that the wings will stall progressively outward from the wing roots to the wingtips. (Washout)
Wingtips have less angle of attack than the wing root; when wing roots of an airplane exceed the critical angle of attack, wing roots will stall first.
Therefore, pilot still can use ailerons to have some control effect.


a. What must first occur prior to a spin occurring (AFH 4-13)

It must be stalled first.
* Spin is uncoordinated stall resulting in autorotation.

b. What is meant crossed-controlled condition

Normally, the proper action to correct for overshooting the runway is to increase the rate of turn by using coordinated aileron and rudder.
It occurs with the controls crossed-aileron pressure applied in one direction and rudder pressure in the opposite direction.


a. Recommended procedure for a visual scan

Effective scanning is accomplished with a series of short, regularly spaced eye movements that bring successive areas of the sky into the central visual field.
Each movement should not exceed 10 °, and each degree should be observed for at least 1 second to enable detection.

b. During a night flight, an aircraft is spotted ahead at 1-o'clock position and red navigation light. Which direction is this a/c moving and what action should be taken

The aircraft is moving from the right to the left, and I should give way to the right.
That aircraft has the right-of-the way.


a. How to avoid encountering another aircraft’s wake turbulence during an approach to landing

Fly above the flight path and land beyond the point the aircraft has been landed.

b. What meteorological condition would cause a vortex to linger on the active runway rather than dissipating outward from the runway

Quartering tailwind makes it stay on the runway.


a. Markings (AIM 2-3-5)

Runway Boundary Sign: This sign faces the runway and is visible to the pilot exiting the runway.
This sign is intended to provide pilot with visual cues for clear of runway.


a. A pilot must comply with all LAHSO operations

Pilots do not need to comply with the LAHSO operation, but once pilots accept the instruction, they should comply with that instruction until the amended instruction be given.
PIC has the final authority to accept or decline any LAHSO clearance.
The Safety and operation of the aircraft remain the responsibility of the pilot.
Pilots are expected to declined a LAHSO clearance if they determine it will compromise safety
A LAHSO clearance, once accepted, must be adhered to, just as any other ATC clearance, unless an amended clearance is obtained or an emergency occurs.

b. How can it be determined if LAHSO ops are at an airport of intended operations?

Pilot should be familiar with all available information concerning LAHSO at their destination airport.
(ALD: Available Landing Distance, RWY slope information, Landing Performance Data)


a. Rational behind the read-and-do checklist vs. the memory item checklist

The checklist is an aid to memory and helps to ensure that critical items necessary for the safe operation of aircraft are not overlooked of forgotten.
Checklists provide a logical and standardized method to operate a particular make and model airplane. Following a checklist reinforces the use of proper procedures throughout all major phases of flight operations.
Read and Do: This is when the pilot picks up a checklist, refers to item, and sets the conditions. The items for any particular phase of flight would all be accomplished before the checklist is set aside.
Do and Verify: Set the conditions of the items for a particular phase of operation from memory of flow pattern, then use the checklist and read to verify that appropriate condition for each item in that phase has been set. It is not wise for a pilot to become so reliant upon a flow pattern that pilot fails to verify with a checklist. Checking important items solely from memory is not an acceptable substitute for checklists.


a. Where CFIT might occur.

Controlled Flight Into Terrain might occur when poor visibility, mountain flying, continued flight into IMC.

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